This results in a more predictable and controlled yield with low fabrication costs in comparison with other laser technologies. VCSELs can be applied in a 2-dimensional array making a single die with hundreds of individual light sources, which increases maximum output power and longer reliability. This type of array can scale the power output to application requirements.
These are ideal for high-speed communications as well as precision sensing applications. VCSELs are used for communication links to meters in networks, enterprise and data centers.
The technology has served the data communications industry for more than 10 years. VCSEL is an emerging technology for many applications including chip to chip interconnect, touchless sensing and gesture recognition.
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US20160226223A1 - VCSEL Packaging and VCSEL Array Configurations - Google Patents
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Implantable medical devices are becoming increasingly capable. June 2. What is a Submarine Hull Penetrator? Industry Profiles: The Defense Industry.A miniature illuminator is described which is suitable for assembly into mobile electronics devices such as cell phones and computer tablets.
Features of the invention overcome the complexity of current miniature illuminators by using single molded structure which includes all the electrical feedthrough connections and has the features necessary for accurate mounting of optical components. The molded structure includes laser safety connections which provide an electrical interrupt signal when the illuminator is damaged in a way that could result in propagation of non-eye safe illuminator beams.
In an alternate operation the illuminator provides a signal when a subject gets too close to the illuminator and would receive unsafe VCSEL illuminator beam. The laser safety feature is integrated into the molded Illuminator package so that separate electrically connected structures to achieve this function are eliminated.
This application claims the benefit of priority of U. Provisional Application No. New features are being added to cell phones and tablets which include technologies to record three dimensional images, sense motion and gestures etc. The digital recording methods use various types of miniature illuminators which interact with cameras to record dynamical events in three dimensional regions.
These illuminators can be of various forms and deliver different types of functions. Some illuminate a wide area with very short pulses for LIDAR type measurements recording time of flight information. Other illuminators are pulsed or CW and project structured light patterns onto the scene. The digital camera records an image of the structured light pattern and then software algorithms are used to determine 3-dimensional scene information from modifications in the pattern image.
The illuminators are installed in mobile devices such as cell phones and tablets and therefore need to be small in size, typically 3 mm or less high and a few millimeters lateral dimensions. These illuminators must be designed for high volume low cost manufacture and also for low cost assembly into the device they are going to be used in.
This means the illuminator should be compatible with high volume electronic surface mount assembly practices.
VCNL36826S product information
One technology that is suitable for miniature illuminators is high power VCSEL devices and array devices. These can be pulsed with very fast rise times suitable for time of flight applications. They are small but produce high power laser beams with efficient electro-optic conversion. The output beam is typically well collimated however various optical components can be placed in the beam to modify the beam properties to the specific application.
One issue with high power laser illuminators is to ensure they meet laser safety regulations when operated in the mobile devices. In one situation, the illuminator could be in an assembly that under normal operation maintains eye-safe operation by preventing any person from getting too close to the illuminator.
However, if the assembly is damaged or if a technician is servicing the unit the person could get too close to the illuminator. This invention includes safety features that provide an electrical interlock signal if a person is inside the eye-safe region of the illuminator. In another situation during handling the illuminator itself it can get damaged or receive a shock.
The damage or shock can damage the illuminator and permit unsafe levels of illumination to be emitted. This invention includes laser safety features so that in the event of damage to any optical component in the illuminator an electrical interlock signal is provided for switching off the VCSEL.
For example, in one aspect. The optical element is arranged in a path of an output beam of the at least one VCSEL and operable to modify a characteristic of the output beam. The module also includes at least one optical detector arranged to receive and sense VCSEL radiation reflected or backscattered from the optical element. A control circuit is coupled to the at least one VCSEL and to the at least one optical detector, wherein the control circuit is operable to monitor one or more output signals from the at least one optical detector and to turn off drive current to the at least one VCSEL in response to a determination that there is at least a predetermined change in an intensity of the VCSEL radiation sensed by the at least one optical detector.
In some implementations, a determination that there is at least a predetermined change in the intensity of the VCSEL radiation reflected or backscattered from the optical component and incident on the at least one optical detector indicates that the optical element is at least partially dislodged or damaged.Order Form.
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Red and green laser pointers. Presenter RF green laser pointers. Laser sight or aimers. Waterproof scuba laser pointers. Fiber optic test tools. Laser and optics mounting components.Effective date : As is known, a vertical cavity surface emitting laser VCSEL is a type of semiconductor laser diode in which a laser beam is emitted perpendicular from a top surface of the device.
The four-sided profile provides certain advantages when singulating a wafer because the singulating can be carried out by using a pattern of horizontal and vertical cutting axes. This given area can correspond to a real estate area on a wafer thereby limiting the number of VCSELs that can be fabricated in each batch from the wafer. The given area can also correspond to a real estate area on a substrate such as a printed circuit board, for example thereby limiting the number of VCSELs that can be mounted on the substrate.
It is therefore desirable to provide VCSEL device packaging and array configurations that allow for denser arrangements on various surfaces. It will be further desirable to ensure that such device packaging and array configurations do not compromise performance and layout parameters. In accordance with a first example embodiment, a device includes a first VCSEL having a triangle shaped cross-section that extends from a top surface to a bottom surface of the first VCSEL.
The metallic annular ring encircles an optical window comprising at least one of a transparent material or a translucent material through which light is propagated out of the first VCSEL.
The device further includes a substrate on which the set of VCSELs is arranged in either an oval configuration or a circular configuration. The oval configuration or the circular configuration can be defined at least in part by the optical window of each of the set of VCSELs being located closer to a center of the oval configuration or the circular configuration than the metal contact on each of the set of VCSELs. In accordance with a third example embodiment, a device includes a first, a second, and a third VCSEL.
The first VCSEL has a top surface on which is located a first metal contact and a first optical window, the first optical window configured for propagating light out of the first VCSEL. The second VCSEL has a top surface on which is located a second metal contact and a second optical window, the second optical window configured for propagating light out of the second VCSEL.
The third VCSEL has a top surface on which is located a third metal contact and a third optical window, the third optical window configured for propagating light out of the third VCSEL. The first optical window and the third optical window are aligned along a first horizontal axis and the second optical window is aligned along a second horizontal axis that is offset with respect to the first horizontal axis.
Many aspects of the invention can be better understood by referring to the following description in conjunction with the accompanying claims and figures. In the figures, like numerals indicate like structural elements and features. For clarity, not every element may be labeled with numerals in each figure. However, such unlabeled elements can be identified by referring to other figures where labeling is provided.
The drawings are not necessarily drawn to scale, emphasis instead being placed upon illustrating the principles of the invention.The designer must be aware of the differences when choosing between the two technologies. Optical power vs. Concern must be taken not to exceed the average power dissipation of the package.
This is known as the threshold current I TH for the device. Each device has its own threshold current and is dependent on the structure, speed, wavelength, and output power. LED optical power is measured as "total power" or "apertured power" at a specified distance.
Looking closer at the drive currents at both 10 and 20 mA, apertured power difference is significant. At 20 mA, this same ratio changes to approximately This allows the VCSEL to enhance operation of many transmissive and reflective switch applications using minimal current. Using a TO package with an optical lens increases the on-axis power.
LEDs and VCSELs in transmissive switches Used in encoders, safety and security shielding, and object sensing, transmissive optical switches are sometimes known as interrupter or slotted switches. This provides the ability to operate optical devices for greater distances as well as lower drive currents.
Keep in mind that a VCSEL has a threshold current that must be achieved before the benefits of the device can be realized. A typical transmissive switch using an LED and a drive current up to mA has a useful distance up to 5 in.
The SDD has an additional advantage of minimizing the affect from ambient light by pulsing the system and looking for a change in the light level. LEDs and VCSELs in reflective switches Used as object sensors as well as in bar code readers, a reflective optical switch is a device that shines IR light from an LED or VCSEL on an object and looks for a reflected signal, distinguishing levels of reflectivity to define the size of the bar code that can be determined.
The sensor can be a phototransistor, Photologic optical sensor with a logical-high or logical-low outputor SDD device, depending on the characteristics of the application. Reflective switches are either focused or nonfocused. A focused switch has both the emitting and sensing device pointing to a spot at "D" distance from the surface of the device.
The focused switch is generally used for bar code and encoder applications. A device such as the OPB Series nonfocused reflective switch has a usable distance with a mA drive current of 0. A nonfocused switch such as this OPB is generally used for sensing the presence of an object. VCSELs vs. Add Comment Text Only character limit. Please login to comment on the article.This application claims priority benefit from the U.Teaching guides for biology pdf
Provisional Patent Application No. In the last few years lasers, and more especially VCSELs and VCSEL arrays, have found applications as sources for optical systems for high power illumination for general illumination, optical pumps for lasers and amplifiers, display and imaging applications, and medical applications just to name a few.What is VCSEL Laser (Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser)?
The low divergence properties of lasers provide highly directional illumination suitable for high levels of illumination at great distances.
The highly directional illumination also results in high brightness and high power density for optical pumping for lasers, amplifiers even in very narrow wavelength band for applications in a wide wavelength range. Visible and Infrared illumination can be obtained in a very narrow wavelength band allowing optical filtering for sensitive discrimination against background noise and efficient optical pumping of narrow spectral absorption bands.
Also short pulsed illumination may be obtained for LIDAR type applications and for time domain distance discrimination applications such as seeing through fog, for motion and gesture detection. In the U.
In another U. According to the description therein, the sensor is provided mainly for controlling driver current to the VCSELs for constant output power. Another trend in VCSEL packaging has been towards integrating various optoelectronic OE functions on the same side of the wafer using via connections at a wafer level, testing performance of individual functional modules before dicing.
US10290993B2 - VCSEL illuminator package - Google Patents
Such an approach has been described in the U. One common element in all the methods referred above is that existing commonly utilized electronic packaging methods are adapted to incorporate VCSELs to extend it to OE functions. Both the methods may be adapted for wafer level processing. It may be noted that the thermal submount may also be adapted for incorporating other optical devices for example, a photodetector a sensor, and other electronic components with VCSELs, and is described in the U.
In some OE packaging, optical beam shaping elements are integrated with basic OE functions. Predeep, ISBNpp. Integrated or external optical components are also used with VCSELs to obtain a desired optical profile in an optical illuminator and several examples have been described in co-owned U. While this can be achieved in many ways, a method particularly suited for a flux-less soldering process for VCSELs is described in the U. One advantage of this method is that no post soldering process to remove excess flux is needed.
In a different approach described in the U.Now the question is what else it is good for? Vertical cavity surface emitting laser VCSEL technology, a proven but mostly niche technology until recently, is suddenly a very hot commodity thanks to the introduction of facial recognition in phones and other mobile devices.
VCELS primarily have been used as a low-cost way of tracking movement and transfering data in computer mice, laser printers and in fiber optics. That decision—and the flood of smartphone and consumer electronics makers who followed suit—forced the whole VCSEL market to scale up with new fabrication, testing and validation processes.
After the adoption of board-to-board communication such as optical backplanes ,the Holy Grail is chip-to-chip communication, ultimately with an all-optical interconnect. The real question is when we will need it. VCSELs are just one of a handful of different silicon photonics approaches that are beginning to gain notice. Across the semiconductor industry there is work underway to bring one or more of these various technologies into the mainstream, particularly at advanced nodes where pushing electrons through wires is becoming much more difficult.
There is a detector, a light source and an image. VCSELs are a small discrete component. Put in perspective, VCSELs are just one of a number of possible chip-based light sources that can be used in these devices. That has a number of benefits, from scaling to test. What gets put into the package, or what resides outside the package, is still being worked on.
You have to keep a certain amount of space, which takes up a lot of area. In fact, 65nm is the most advanced node so far. Another opportunity lies in automotive applications like LiDAR with higher power requirements.
VCNL36826S product information
Key requirements are uniform and laminar flow of the metal-organics and hydrides over the surface of the wafers, uniform and controllable temperature and sharp interfaces between layers.
To achieve highest productivity, your platform will require long time between preventative maintenance cycles, fast recovery after preventative maintenance and fast epitaxial growth rates. VCSELs do their ranging and time-of-flight calculations using pulses of light with frequencies in the tens of gigahertz, identifying movement by looking at changes between one image and the next.
LiDAR is a good potential market, but is less attractive than shorter-term automotive opportunities like motion-detection and face-recognition inside the cabin.
The technology can be used to identify when a driver is drowsy, or allow passengers to control the infotainment or other systems with hand gestures, according to Craig Thompson, vice president of new markets for Finisar, which is supplies chips to Apple. Finisar has been developing VCSELs for use in copper-to-fiber interfaces for carrier-grade data-networking equipment sincewhen it bought the division that first commercialized VCSELs from Honeywell and expanded sales beyond computer mice and PC peripherals and into data networking.
The real advantage of VCSELS is their convenience, flexibility and power, as well as their thermal efficiency compared to other laser sources, Lamant said. Wiring is easier because electrical and thermal management can be done from underneath while the laser emerges from the top. Each laser aperture is independent and essentially identical.
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